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Founded in the IX century
BC by the Etruscans or more probably from
the Oscans, Capua knew soon a period of development
in fact in the IV century BC was the larger city of Italy.
Passed to the Romans knew very well the Carthaginian
general Hannibal, who stayed here with its army after
the battle of Canne (2 August 216 a.C.). He stayed here approximately
a year, period remembered by historians with the name of so-called
“leisures of Capua” as it's believed
that the stay weakened the will and the combative force of
the soldiers seduced by the beautiful life of the city. The
city however remained faithful to Rome.
In the first century BC. Capua was defined by Cicerone altera
Roma for the beauty of its private and publics buildings.
Devastated by Goths and the Vandals
it was then managed by Longobards under the
Duchy of Benevento that
with to the Duchy of Spoleto
constituted formed the so called Langobardia Minor.
In the sphere of the fights for the succession of the Longobard
Duchy between Radelchi and Siconolfo,
son of the legitimate king Sicardo probably assassinated by
the first one, Capua was plundered and destroyed by Saracens
engaged by Radelchi (841). The fugitive population
sheltered first founding Sicopoli but, after the destruction
of the new city because of a fire, founded New Capua nearby
the ancient Roman port by now abandoned (I cent. AD) of Casilinum.
Of the ancient Capua can be admired the rests of the Campanian
amphitheater, the Adrian Arc and
The history of the New Capua began in 856
AD like capital of the Longobard principality of
Capua that ended for the arrival of Normans
in 1059. In 1156 it passed to the Kingdom
of Sicily until the arrival of the Svevians in South
of Italy happened thanks to the wedding between Henry VI,
son of the Svevian emperor Federico Barbarossa, and Costanza
d'Altavilla (1185), daughter of Roger II of Sicily.
Subsequently the city was dominated by the Angioins
and the Aragoneses and endured a besiege
by Caesar Borgia (1501), son of Pope Alexander VI, during
which many inhabitants died.
Stablily passed to the Roman Church Capua
knew only the pause of the Republican experience of Buonaparte
under Gioacchino Murat (1808-1815)
until the date of the constitution of the Reign of Italy (1860).
Of the ancient period of Casilinum the Roman
Bridge can be admired, of which remain only the heads
after the bombing in 1943, and the Towers of Federico
II: bases of a triumphal arc erected in 1234 where
it rose the ancient Rome Door since the antiquity.
To the Middle Ages and Renaissance
date back instead the Castello delle Pietre
(1062), the Castle of Carl V (1542-1552), Porta Napoli and
Impossible to name here all the churches in Capua but we remember
the Church and ex Convento dell'Annunziata
(XIII cent.), the Church and Convento di Santa Caterina
(1383), the Montevergine Church and ex Monastery ('200) and
three Longobard churches: San Salvatore a Corte (960), restored
in Norman age; San Giovanni a Corte (X century), restored
during '700; San Michele a Corte (IX-X century). The Cathedral
of Saints Stefano and Agata, constructed in 856, was destroyed
by the bombings in 1943.
Numerous also the examples of civic architecture
between which we cite Palazzo Antignano center
of the Campanian Museum, Palazzo Fieramosca
('200) with beautiful ogival portale, Palazzo del Governatore
(1585) in Piazza dei Giudici (square).
In Capua is kept every year one of the most ancient carnival